Going Back to Work With Cancer

Jim Madden tells how going back to work helped him to get back to normal after being treated for Hodgkin's Disease.

'The first inkling I had that something was wrong was when I drank alcohol. Even a single glass of wine caused a slight pain in my shoulder. So I gave up, but two months later, with the first sip of wine, the pain returned and I decided to see my doctor.'

When he went to his GP, he was told that this sensation was quite normal in middle-aged asthmatics, so, reassured, he returned to his work as a college lecturer. But the pains continued so Jim went back to his GP who suggested a chest X-ray. Unfortunately, it was not until six weeks later that Jim finally went for his X-ray and was told by a worried-looking radiologist that he most probably had Hodgkin's Disease.

The radiologist didn't like to use the word 'cancer' because of its so-called connotations, yet Jim quickly realised it was cancer as the radiologist started to use words like 'chemotherapy' and 'radiotherapy'. However, the good news was that there was apparently a 70-80% chance of recovery. So Jim blithely rang his wife at work. Met with a stunned silence at the other end of the line, he started to wonder whether the radiologist's optimism was well founded.

Things then began to move very quickly. After an initial interview with two very grave looking consultants, who seemed to resemble 'friendly, but worried undertakers', Jim was rushed into one of the best hospitals for cancer treatment in London. A biopsy revealed the truth of the radiologist's diagnosis. Chemotherapy began, but with the added complication of a fine tube being implanted in his chest. This 'Hickman line' was to facilitate treatment and spare the veins.

The chemotherapy took place once a fortnight and was followed by several days of feeling sick when Jim was unable to work. But in between times he found he could teach, although at 'half-strength'. His employers were very understanding throughout. His pay was unaffected and he was not required to attend any meetings that were not vital. Work, in fact, helped him to cope with his illness. He felt that by resuming his normal activities, he was returning to the 'real world'. 'The visits to hospital were just a necessary interruption, rather like going to the dentist. You had to grin and bear it and then get back to work.'

That September, radiotherapy began and was to last for six weeks. Hair loss caused some loss of confidence, but when Jim decided to shave everything off and grow a beard, his trendy, arty appearance bolstered his self-confidence again. But the radiotherapy did leave him tired and listless and less ready to commute across London and to teach effectively. It was during this time that the support of colleagues was invaluable. Frequent phone calls and reassuring cards helped him feel that he was in touch with what was going on at work.

After a year of treatment and recovery, Jim was able to return to work, feeling pretty normal and, as each week went by and his confidence returned, he began to think of the future. Now, nine years later, he still returns to hospital for yearly check-ups and even pops in for a cup of coffee now and then to 'the most convenient cafe in London'. He remains very grateful for the excellent treatment and care he received.

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The Lymphomas

Malignant lymphomas are a diverse group of cancers derived from the immune system, which result from neoplastic proliferation of B or T lymphocytes. These tumors may arise anywhere in the physique, most commonly inside lymph nodes but occasionally in other organs in which lymphoid components reside. 1 subtype of lymphomas that are composed of mixtures of cellular kinds having a unique biology is called Hodgkin's lymphomas, whereas all other kinds of lymphomas are referred to as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

Several elements are associated with the improvement of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These consist of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency states for example AIDS or iatrogenic immunosuppression utilized in organ transplantation. Viruses are related to the pathogenesis of some types. For instance, most instances of Burkitt's lymphoma that happen in Africa (endemic kind) are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), whereas Burkitt's lymphoma manifesting in temperate zones is associated with EBV in only 30% of cases. Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus I (HTLV-I) plays a causative role in the genesis of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, in which the malignant cells contain the integrated virus. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) have been related to physique cavity-based lymphoma, a uncommon B-cell lymphoma that occurs predominantly in patients with AIDS. Chronic immune stimulation may be a causal system in the development of lymphomas too. For instance, chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori infection may give go up to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Resolution of gastric MALT lymphoma might occur in the majority of patients with localized disease who're dealt with with antibiotics efficient against H pylori.

The classification of lymphomas has evolved over several decades. The newest distinction was devised by an international group of lymphoma specialists for that Globe Health Organization. The new scheme characterizes non-Hodgkin's lymphomas according towards the cellular of origin utilizing a combination of criteria: medical and morphologic features, cytogenetics, and immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies that recognize B-cell and T-cell antigens, too as genotypic determination of B-cell and T-cell receptor rearrangements. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas originate in B tissue and express on their surface CD20, a B-cell marker. Their monoclonal origin could be inferred by characterization from the particular class of light chain that is expressed: Either kappa or lambda B-cell lymphomas are further classified as malignant expansions of tissue from your germinal center, mantle zone, or marginal zone of normal lymph nodes.

Somatic gene rearrangements occur normally during B-cell and T-cell differentiation. The genes for variable and continual regions of the immunoglobulin weighty and light chains are discontinuous in the B-cell germline DNA but are blended by somatic rearrangement to create a functional antibody molecule. The T-cell receptor gene is analogous to the immunoglobulin molecule in that discontinuous sections of this gene also undergo somatic rearrangement early in T-cell development. DNA hybridization by Southern blot analysis permits recognition of a band of electrophoretic mobility that serves being a fingerprint for a monoclonal population of lymphoma tissue.

Most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas exhibit karyotypic abnormalities. The most prevalent translocations consist of t(8;14), t(14;18), and t(11;14). Each translocation requires the immunoglobulin weighty chain gene locus at chromosome 14q32 with an oncogene. Identification and cloning of the breakpoints have identified 8q24 as c-myc, 18q21 as bcl-2, and 11q13 as bcl-1. The proximity of these oncogenes to the immunoglobulin gene results in deregulation and elevated expression from the oncogene product.

Representative subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include the indolent lymphomas for example follicular lymphoma, marginal zone lymphomas, and also the intense lymphomas for example mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large-cell lymphoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma.

Follicular lymphomas are low-grade tumors that may be insidious within their presentation. The translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is found in more than 90% of follicular lymphomas. The mutation results in overexpression from the bcl-2 protein by these tissue. The bcl-2 is an oncogene that codes for a protein that blocks apoptosis when overexpressed. The absence of bcl-2 translocation as assessed through the highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction test may be a marker for full remission standing in sufferers whose lymphomas harbor this translocation. Spontaneous regression of lymph node size is typical in sufferers with follicular lymphomas. Nevertheless, this class of lymphoma is not curable with standard chemotherapy; although the affected person with follicular lymphoma tends to possess an indolent clinical course, transformation to some a lot more aggressive grade of lymphoma happens in 40-50% of patients by 10 years.

An important subtype of limited area lymphomas would be the MALT lymphomas, which might originate within the stomach, lungs, epidermis, parotid gland, thyroid, breasts, along with other extranodal websites, where they characteristically align themselves with epithelial cells. A close association has been set up between gastric MALT lymphomas and H pylori infection.

Mantle mobile lymphoma presents histologically being a monotonous populace of small to medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells having a nodular or diffuse pattern that is composed of little lymphoid tissue with irregular nuclear outlines. The diagnosis of mantle mobile lymphoma is depending on morphologic requirements with confirmation by monoclonal antibody staining against cyclin D1 (bcl-1). The t(11;14) translocation seen in the majority of cases of mantle mobile lymphoma results in juxtaposition from the PRAD1 gene on chromosome 11 with the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene on chromosome 14. This outcomes in overexpression from the PRAD1 gene item, cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 binds to and activates cyclin-dependent kinases, which are believed to facilitate cell cycle progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This illness occurs more frequently among older males and presents with adenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Mantle mobile lymphomas are significantly a lot more resistant to remedy with mixture chemotherapy than follicular lymphomas and are also incurable.

Diffuse large-cell lymphoma is probably the most prevalent subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. One third of presentations involve extranodal sites, particularly the head and neck, abdomen, epidermis, bone, testis, and nervous program. Diffuse big B-cell lymphomas frequently harbor mutations or rearrangements from the BCL6 gene.

Virtually all instances of Burkitt's lymphoma are associated with alterations of chromosome 8q24, resulting in overexpression of c-myc, an oncogene that encodes a transcriptional regulator of mobile proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adults presenting with higher tumor burdens and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase have a bad prognosis. Disease with a large tumor burden may be connected with a hypermetabolic syndrome that is triggered by remedy as the tumor undergoes sudden lysis. This syndrome may result in life-threatening hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, and hypocalcemia.

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is characterized through the proliferation of extremely atypical cells that express the CD30 antigen. These tumors usually communicate a T-cell phenotype and are connected using the chromosomal translocation t(a couple of;five)(p23;q35), producing in the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) fusion protein. Activation of the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase results in an unregulated mitogenic signal.

Another kind of T-cell lymphoma may be the adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, an intense illness connected with HTLV-I infection that is characterized by generalized adenopathy, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, hypercalcemia, and lytic bone lesions.

Lastly, Hodgkin's lymphoma is distinguished by the presence of the Reed-Sternberg giant cell of B-cell lineage, which can be regarded the malignant cell kind in this neoplasm. The Reed-Sternberg cell constitutes only 1-10% of the total number of tissue in pathologic specimens of this illness and is connected with an infiltrate of nonneoplastic inflammatory cells.

Franco Zinzi has been involved with online marketing for nearly 3 years and likes to write on various subjects. Come visit his latest website which discusses of Mesothelioma Treatment Options and Mesothelioma related informations for the owner of his own life.

Original article

The Chronic and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), as well called acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), is a rapidly progressive neoplasm resulting from hematopoietic precursors, or myeloid stem tissue, that give rise to granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. There's growing evidence that genetic events occurring early in stem mobile maturation can lead to leukemia. Very first, there's a lag time of 5-10 years towards the development of leukemia after coverage to known causative agents such as chemotherapy, radiation, and particular solvents.

2nd, many instances of secondary leukemia evolve out of a prolonged "preleukemic phase" manifested like a myelodysplastic syndrome of hypoproduction with abnormal maturation without having precise malignant behavior. Finally, examination of precursor cells at a stage earlier than the malignant expanded clone in a provided kind of leukemia can reveal genetic abnormalities such as monosomy or trisomy of various chromosomes. In maintaining using the general molecular theme of neoplasia, extra genetic modifications are witnessed in the malignant clone compared with the morphologically normal stem cell that developmentally precedes it.

Acute myelocytic leukemias are classified by morphology and cytochemical staining. Auer rods are crystalline cytoplasmic inclusion bodies characteristic of, though not uniformly witnessed in, all myeloid leukemias. In contrast to mature myeloid tissue, leukemic cells have large immature nuclei with open chromatin and prominent nucleoli. The look from the individual kinds of AML mirrors the cell kind from which they derive. M1 leukemias originate from early myeloid precursors with no apparent maturation toward any terminal myeloid mobile type. This really is apparent within the lack of granules or other features that mark more mature myeloid cells. M3 leukemias are a neoplasm of promyelocytes, precursors of granulocytes, and M3 cells exhibit abundant azurophilic granules which are common of normal promyelocytes.

M4 leukemias arise from myeloid precursors that may differentiate into granulocytes or monocytes, whereas M5 leukemias derive from precursors currently committed towards the monocyte lineage. Therefore, M4 and M5 cells both include the feature folded nucleus and gray cytoplasm of monocytes, whereas M4 cells include also granules of the granulocytic cytochemical staining pattern. M6 and M7 leukemias can't be readily identified on morphologic grounds, but immunostaining for erythrocytic proteins is positive in M6 tissue, and staining for platelet glycoproteins is apparent in M7 tissue.

Chromosomal deletions, duplications, and well balanced translocations had been noted about the leukemic tissue of some patients prior to the introduction of molecular genetic techniques. Cloning from the regions exactly where well balanced translocations occur has, in some cases, revealed a preserved translocation website that reproducibly fuses a single gene with an additional, producing in the manufacturing of a brand new blend protein. M3 leukemias show a really higher frequency of the t(15;17) translocation that juxtaposes the PML gene with the RAR- gene. RAR- encodes a retinoic acid steroid hormone receptor, and PML encodes a transcription factor whose target genes are unknown. The blend protein possesses novel biologic action that presumably results in improved proliferation and a obstruct of differentiation.

Interestingly, retinoic acid can induce a short-term remission of M3 leukemia, supporting the importance of the RAR--PML blend protein. Monosomy of chromosome seven can be observed in leukemias arising out from the preleukemic syndrome of myelodysplasia or in de novo leukemias, and in both instances this finding is associated with a worse clinical prognosis. This monosomy as well as other serial cytogenetic modifications may also be seen right after relapse of treated leukemia, a scenario characterized by a a lot more aggressive program and resistance to therapy.

As hematopoietic neoplasms, acute leukemias involve the bone marrow and usually manifest abnormal circulating leukemic (blast) cells. Occasionally, extramedullary leukemic infiltrates recognized as chloromas can be observed in other organs and mucosal surfaces. A marked improve within the number of circulating blasts can sometimes trigger vascular obstruction associated with hemorrhage and infarction within the cerebral and pulmonary vascular beds. This leukostasis results in symptoms such as strokes, retinal vein occlusion, and pulmonary infarction.

In most instances of AML along with other leukemias, peripheral blood counts of mature granulocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets are decreased. This is probably because of crowding from the bone marrow by blast tissue as nicely as the elaboration of inhibitory substances by leukemic cells or alteration of the bone marrow stromal microenvironment and cytokine milieu required for normal hematopoiesis. Susceptibility to infections consequently of depressed granulocyte amount and function and abnormal bleeding as a result of reduced platelet counts are common problems in sufferers initially presenting with leukemia.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an indolent leukemia manifested by an increased quantity of immature granulocytes in the marrow and peripheral circulation. One of the hallmarks of CML may be the Philadelphia chromosome, a cytogenetic function that is due to balanced translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, producing in a fusion gene, bcr-abl, that encodes a kinase that phosphorylates a number of key proteins included in cell development and apoptosis. The fusion gene can recreate a CML-like syndrome when released into mice.

CML eventually transforms into acute leukemia (blast crisis), which is associated with further cytogenetic changes and a clinical course similar to that of acute leukemia. New courses of medicines that block the bcr-abl kinase by competing with the ATP-binding site, induce remissions in most patients in chronic phases of CML. Moreover, resistance to these bcr-abl inhibitors can include amplification from the bcr-abl breakpoint as nicely as the development (or clonal expansion) of mutations in the ATP-binding pocket of bcr-abl, which no longer allows binding of inhibitors.

Franco Zinzi has been involved with online marketing for nearly 3 years and likes to write on various subjects. Come visit his latest website which discusses of Mesothelioma Treatment Options and cancer related informations for the owner of his own life.

Original article

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children

This information is about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. It is helpful to read general information on children's cancer, which contains more information about cancers in children, their diagnosis and treatment and the support services available.

* Leukaemia
* Causes of ALL
* Signs and symptoms
* How it is diagnosed
* Treatment
* Side effects of treatment
* Clinical trials
* Follow-up
* Your feelings
* References


One third of all childhood cancers are leukaemia, with approximately 400 new cases occurring each year in the UK. Approximately three quarters (75%) of these are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. ALL can affect children at any age but is more common between the ages of 1 and 4. ALL is more common in boys than girls.


Leukaemia is a cancer of the white blood cells. All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the spongy substance at the core of some of the bones in the body. Bone marrow contains:

* red blood cells that carry oxygen around the body
* white blood cells that help fight infection
* platelets that help the blood to clot and control bleeding.

There are two different types of white cell: lymphocytes or myeloid cells. These white blood cells work together to fight infection. Normally white blood cells repair and reproduce themselves in an orderly and controlled way. In leukaemia, however, the process gets out of control and the cells continue to divide, but do not mature.

These immature dividing cells fill up the bone marrow and stop it from making healthy blood cells. As the leukaemic cells are not mature, they cannot work properly. This leads to an increased risk of infection. Because the bone marrow cannot make enough healthy red blood cells and platelets, symptoms such as anaemia and bruising can occur.

There are four main types of leukaemia: acute lymphoblastic (ALL), acute myeloid (AML), chronic lymphocytic (CLL) and chronic myeloid (CML). Chronic leukaemias usually affect adults and are extremely rare in children and young people. Each type of leukaemia has its own characteristics and treatment. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a cancer of immature lymphocytes, called lymphoblasts or blast cells.

There are two different types of lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells. Often the leukaemia occurs at a very early stage in the immature lymphocytes, before they have developed as far as becoming either T-cells or B-cells. However, if the cells have developed this far before becoming leukaemic, the type of leukaemia may be known as T-cell or B-cell leukaemia.

Causes of ALL

The exact cause of ALL is unknown. Research is going on all the time into possible causes of this disease. Children with certain genetic disorders, such as Down's syndrome, are known to have a higher risk of developing leukaemia. Brothers and sisters of a child with ALL have a slightly increased risk of developing ALL themselves, although this risk is still small.

In recent years there has been publicity about leukaemia occurring more often in children living close to nuclear power plants or high-voltage power lines. Research is still under way to see if there is any definite link between these factors but as yet there is no evidence of this. ALL, like other types of cancer, is not infectious and cannot be passed on to other people.

Signs and symptoms

As the leukaemia cells multiply in the bone marrow, the production of normal blood cells is reduced. Children may therefore become tired and lethargic due to anaemia, which is caused by a lack of red blood cells. They may develop bruises, and bleeding may take longer to stop due to low numbers of platelets. Sometimes children may suffer from infections because of low numbers of normal white blood cells.

A child is likely to feel generally unwell and may complain of aches and pains in the limbs, or may have swollen lymph glands. At first the symptoms are just like those of a viral infection, but when they continue for more than a week or two the diagnosis usually becomes clear.

How it is diagnosed

A blood test usually shows low numbers of normal white blood cells and the presence of the abnormal leukaemic cells. A sample of bone marrow is needed to confirm the diagnosis. A lumbar puncture is done to see if the spinal fluid contains any leukaemia cells. A chest x-ray is also done, which will show if there are any enlarged glands in the chest. Other tests may be necessary, depending on the child's symptoms.

These tests will help to identify the precise type of leukaemia involved.


The aim of treatment for ALL is to destroy the leukaemia cells and allow the bone marrow to work normally again. Chemotherapy is the main treatment for ALL. Usually a combination of chemotherapy drugs are given according to a treatment plan (often called a protocol or regimen). The treatment is given in several phases, or 'blocks', which are outlined below.

Induction This phase involves intensive treatment aimed at destroying as many leukaemia cells as possible. The induction phase lasts for 4-6 weeks. A bone-marrow test is taken at the end of induction treatment to check if the child is in remission. Remission is where there is no evidence of leukaemia.

Consolidation and central nervous system (CNS) treatment The next phase of treatment is aimed at maintaining the remission and also at preventing the spread of leukaemia cells into the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system). CNS treatment involves injecting a drug, usually methotrexate, directly into the spinal fluid (intrathecally) during a lumbar puncture. Occasionally radiotherapy to the brain is also necessary.

Further doses of chemotherapy treatment (somtimes called 'intensification blocks') are given in order to kill off any remaining leukaemia cells. Between 2 and 4 blocks of treatment may be needed, depending on your child's particular treatment plan.

Maintenance treatment This phase of treatment lasts for up to 2 years for girls and up to 3 years for boys, from diagnosis. It involves daily tablets and monthly injections of chemotherapy.

Children will be able to take part in their normal daily activities as soon as they feel able to. Some children return to school before maintenance treatment.

Bone-marrow transplantation Bone-marrow transplantation is only used for children with ALL that is likely to come back following standard chemotherapy, or for children whose leukaemia has come back (recurred) following standard treatment.

Testicular radiotherapy In some situations it may be necessary for boys to have radiotherapy to their testicles. This is because leukaemia cells can survive in the testicles despite chemotherapy.

Side effects of treatment

Many cancer treatments will cause side effects. This is because while the treatments are killing the cancer cells they can also damage some normal cells. Some of the main side effects are:

* hair loss
* reduction in the number of blood cells produced by the bone marrow, which can cause anemia, an increased risk of bruising, bleeding and infection
* loss of appetite and weight
* nausea (feeling sick) and vomiting

Most side effects are temporary and there are ways of reducing them and supporting your child through them. Your child's doctor or nurse will talk to you about any possible side effects.

Late side effects

A small number of children may develop late side effects, sometimes many years later. These include possible problems with puberty and fertility, a change in the way the heart works and a small increase in the risk of developing another cancer in later life. Your child's doctor or nurse will explain about any possible late side effects.

Clinical trials

Many children have their treatment as part of a clinical research trial. Trials aim to improve our understanding of the best way to treat an illness (usually by comparing the standard treatment with a new or modified version of the standard treatment). Specialist doctors carry out trials for ALL. Your child's medical team will talk to you about taking part in a clinical trial (if appropriate) and will answer any questions you may have. Written information is often provided to help explain things. Taking part in a research trial is completely voluntary and you'll be given plenty of time to decide if it is right for your child. At present the main trial for ALL is called 'UKALL 2003'.

Most children with ALL are cured. If the leukaemia comes back, it normally does so within the first three years after stopping treatment. Further treatment can then be given. Long-term side effects are uncommon and most children with ALL grow and develop normally.

If you have specific concerns about your child's condition and treatment, it is best to discuss them with your child's doctor, who knows the situation in detail.

Your feelings

As a parent, the fact that your child has cancer is one of the worst situations to face. You may have many different emotions, such as fear, guilt, sadness, anger and uncertainty. These are all normal reactions and are part of the process that many parents go through at such a difficult time. There is not enough space here to address all of the feelings you may have. However, general information on children's cancer talks about the emotional impact of caring for a child with cancer and suggests sources of help and support.

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Original article

Donating Bone Marrow

Stem cells are made in the bone marrow and mature into red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. When they go rogue and produce defective or cancerous cells, one way to stop them is to "reboot" the bone marrow with a transplant of healthy cells.

You can see why the terms "bone marrow transplant" and "stem cell transplant" are used interchangeably. While there is no difference in the transplant procedure itself, there is a difference in how the cells are harvested. In the past, liquid marrow containing stem cells was collected using a needle inserted into the donor's pelvis. In the majority of cases today, they can be harvested from the blood in a non-surgical procedure done in an outpatient clinic.

The Match Game

The key to a successful transplant is the match between a donor's cells and the patient's, which is typed using human leukocyte antigens (HLA). HLAs are proteins on the surface of white blood cells and other tissues. If there's an HLA match, donor cells are less likely to provoke an attack by the patient's immune system.

The best matches come from siblings or other family members, but people who don't have a suitable relative must find a donor in one of the bone marrow registries. If I needed a transplant and couldn't find a match within my family I would join the 7,500 Americans who are actively searching the national registry for a donor at any given time.

I would have about a 75% chance of finding a match since I'm Caucasian. If I were Hispanic the odds would drop to about 45%, Asian to 40%, African American to 25%. If I were of mixed race they would plummet even lower.

And if I discovered a match in the registry, there's a 35% chance that person could not be located or would change their mind about donating; 66% for African Americans.

These sobering numbers are part of the reason why about 1,000 people die every year while searching for a suitable donor.

Be The Match

Donors must be 18-60 years old and in good health. They can't be pregnant or have a medical condition such as cancer, severe arthritis or asthma, heart or autoimmune disease, or an STD. (If you recently got a tattoo, you may have to wait a year to donate.)

You can get more info on the nuts and bolts of donating from the Be The Match Registry Center near you. They'll have you complete a short health questionnaire and sign a consent form. Then they'll take a swab of cheek cells or a blood sample for HLA typing and your information will be added to a confidential donor database.

If (or when) your HLA type matches someone needing a transplant, you'll be called for further testing. If the match is confirmed, you'll be asked to donate either peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow depending on what's best for the patient.

This is a volunteer process and you can withdraw at any time. Or, you might get the chance to save a life, which is a wonderful thing and will look great on your permanent record!

Mike Hamel is the author of a dozen books and a popular blog based on his experience with cancer, http://mikehamel.wordpress.com/.

Original article

What is Lymphoma

When you're not feeling well, you take assessment as to what's wrong with you. Your throat is scratchy, you have a headache or a fever or perhaps you're nauseas and throwing up. You can easily say what is wrong with you based on your symptoms. When symptoms persist or become worse, a trip to the doctor is probably necessary. It could easily be just a stubborn infection that requires antibiotics or something a little more serious. Either way, it's good to get a diagnosis so that whatever's wrong can be treated right away. Lymphoma is a disease that may start of as harmless symptoms and easily brushed off as nothing but you wouldn't want to let this go to long because the sooner you're able to have this disease diagnosed, the better able you will be cured.

Lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic system. You have glands or nodes all over your body and these glands are connected to the vessels that carry your white blood cells or lymphatic fluid throughout your blood stream which help to fight off disease in the body. White blood cells act as a barrier to bacteria and toxins that enter the body through the air, our food and water and even through germs we expose ourselves to every day. The glands of the lymphatic system are all connected on a track and this track is circulated throughout the body at each gland stop, like a train station. When cancer strikes a gland in the system it is easily able to spread to all the other glands by hitching a ride on the white blood cells. Now you think that the white blood cells could fight it off, right? Well, if you are someone that may have a weak immune system, your white blood cells may not be able to fight them off faster than they can multiply.

Lymphoma can come in two ways, one is called Hodgkin's lymphoma and the other is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hodgkin's lymphoma is the cancer that can spread from one lymph node to another. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a whole different category of cancer with over 30 distinguishable characteristics to diagnose. Non-lymphoma is more difficult to diagnose and finding the right treatment is a long process but once diagnosed and treated effectively, a person could live a long time. There is no cure for Hodgkin's Lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma but there are treatment out there that are very promising depending on the rate at timeline the cancer is growing. Early detection is so important for these types of cancers as symptoms are outward in nature by way of noticing swollen glands in the neck, underarm and groin and weight loss as well as fatigue and a general feeling of unrest.

Someone who may have a low-grade form of lymphoma will experience having slow growing cancer and thus will not have as obvious of symptoms as the more relevant faster growing lymphomas. Slow growing lymphomas are more difficult to treat because they have a higher probability of growing back. The only treatment at this time is chemotherapy and radiation and doing this type of treatment long-term can cause a lot of other issues not related to the cancer itself.

If you feel your glands are larger than normal or sore to the touch, please have it checked out to be on the safe side. Lymphoma is not something to mess around with.

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Treating Multiple Myeloma Naturally

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that commences in plasma cells which are a part of the white blood cells present in the blood circulation. These plasma cells play an important part in the immune system of the body by producing antibodies to help protect the body against infection and damage. In this disease, plasma cells become abnormal and are then termed as myeloma cells, which produce antibodies known as M proteins. These myeloma cells gradually crowd out the normal cells within the bones and produce symptoms in several bones at a time, because of which this condition is termed as multiple myeloma. When myeloma cells collect in one single bone, this mass is known as plasmacytoma.

Multiple myeloma produces symptoms such as weakness, tiredness, frequent infections, frequent thirst, bone pains - especially the back, broken bones, frequent urination, nausea, constipation, anaemia, weight loss, kidney failure, and amyloidosis. Multiple myeloma is diagnosed with the help of tests such as x-rays for bones, high levels of plasma cells and calcium in the blood, M protein and Beta 2 microglobulin, and Bence Jones protein test for 24 hours urine. A bone marrow examination is usually diagnostic of this condition. CT scan, MRI, and PET scan can be utilised to identify the spread of the disease and severity, after which the disease is graded so as to define the treatment plan for this condition. Anticancer drugs, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation constitute the conventional treatment for this condition. Overall, response to anticancer drugs and radiation therapy is quite poor, and most patients stop responding after some time.

Ayurvedic herbal treatment is especially useful in the treatment of multiple myeloma, since it treats both the original problem in the bone marrow and also treats its associated symptoms. The herbal medicines which are used in the management of this condition have a specific action on the bone marrow and stimulate it to start producing normal plasma and other blood cells. Simultaneously, other medicines are utilised in order to kill and remove the abnormal plasma cells from the blood and the bones. These dead cells are then flushed out from the body either from the gastrointestinal tract or through the kidneys via the urine.

Herbo- mineral medicines can be used in the management of multiple myeloma which normalise the production of red blood cells and white blood cells and thereby treat symptoms such as weakness, tiredness, frequent thirst and anaemia. Removal of the abnormal plasma cells from the bones reduces bone pains and prevents or reduces fracture of bones due to bone weakness. The excess calcium present in the blood is redirected towards the bones to normalise the disturbed metabolism resulting from multiple myeloma. Medicines which remove the debris, dead cancer cells, and generated toxins through the kidneys also have a preserving function on the kidneys so that these are not damaged due to the disease. If the affected individual exhibits symptoms of amyloidosis, this condition needs to be treated separately with Ayurvedic medicines.

Some Ayurvedic medicines which are useful in the management of multiple myeloma include Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis),Gokshur (Tribulus terrestris), Abhadi Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut Gugglu,Gokshuradi Guggulu and Mahamanjishthadi Qadha. Most individuals affected with multiple myeloma require Ayurvedic treatment for about 9 to 15 months in order to benefit significantly from treatment and obtain considerable relief from this condition. Ayurvedic treatment can definitely bring about a good response in this condition, which has so far proved to be refractory to conventional treatment, and herbal treatment can provide significant improvement in the quality of life as well as survival of affected individuals. Ayurvedic herbal treatment thus has a significant contribution to play in the management and treatment of multiple myeloma.

Dr. A. A. Mundewadi is Chief Ayurvedic Physician at Mundewadi Ayurvedic Clinic based at Thane, Maharashtra, India. He is available as an online Ayurvedic Consultant at http://www.ayurvedaphysician.com/
The online clinic offers Ayurvedic treatment for all chronic and refractory health problems. Dr. A. A. Mundewadi, B.A.M.S., has clinical experience of over 25 years and clinical research experience of 12 years. He has conducted extensive research in HIV infection, Schizophrenia and many other chronic diseases.

Original article

Researchers May Have Found the Leukemia Cause

A new study may shed light into why leukemia, one of the deadliest cancers, develops in the first place.

Although leukemia is one of the best studied cancers, the cause of some types is still poorly understood, but experts in the US say a new method may make it possible for healthcare experts to discover why the disease forms.

Specialists at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania said that a newly-found mutation in acute myeloid leukemia patients could account for half of the remaining cases of adult acute leukemia which have no known origin.

Senior author Dr Craig Thompson, director of the facility, said the molecular biology of leukemia has been studied for the last 20 years and experts thought they had found most of the common genes for it.

"Now we're able to point to a distinct type of mutation for half of the remaining leukemia's for which we didn't know the cause and between one-quarter and one-third of leukemia's in older patients.

Every year more than 7,000 people are diagnosed with leukemia in the UK, or around 19 people every day, making it the tenth most common cancer, with more than 4,200 new cases diagnosed in 2006 alone.

The new findings, published this week in Cancer Cell, suggest that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients have increased levels of a molecule called 2HG.

AML is a quick-moving, deadly cancer that starts in the bone marrow and soon moves into the blood, and the specialists found that increased amounts of 2HG stem from a mutation in one of two related metabolic enzymes, IDH1 or IDH2.

Dr Thompson commented: "If we're able to block tumours from producing 2HG, perhaps we would be able to stop the patient's leukemia."

Find out about the WellWoman plan.

Original article

Microscopes and Hodgkin's Lymphoma - Understanding the Pathophysiology of a Common Cancer

First off What is Lymphoma?

We have to first define what lymphoma is before discussing Hodgkin's disease. Lymphoma is a cancer that develops from cells in the body known as "lymphocytes." Lympocytes are a subcategory of white blood cells. There are two different types of lymphocytes: B-cells and T-cells. Almost all lymphomas, including Hodgkin's disease, stem from B-cells.

In Hodgkin's lymphoma a B-cell, for unknown reasons, becomes cancerous. The cell then makes many many clones of itself. These cells bundle together to form a solid tumor known as a lymphoma. There are several hypotheses for why these cells become cancerous in Hodgkin's. One belief is that infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, the same virus that causes infectious mononucleosis) can cause the cells to turn malignant in genetically susceptible people. Other theories are that certain genetic translocations may be the underlying factor. As of yet, no particular theory has significant supporting data to call it the "cause." In fact, there may be multiple unrelated causes.


There are different subcategories of Hodgkin's lymphoma. They are based on several microscopic characteristics, and are important in determining prognosis. The features the pathologist is looking for are the number of Reed-Sternberg cells, as well as the number of lymphocytes present in the biospy specimen. A Reed-Sternberg cell is a funny shaped cell with two nuclei that looks like owl's eyes.

The first subcategory, and most common type, is nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this type there are very few Reed-Sternberg cells with a moderate number of lymphocytes. It commonly occurs in younger individuals, and with treatment, the prognosis is excellent.

The second subcategory is mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma. This type has many Reed-Sternberg cells and a moderate number of lymphocytes when viewed under the microscope. It has an intermediate prognosis.

The third subcategory is lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's. It has very few Reed-Sternberg cells and many lymphocytes. It occurs most commonly in males less than 35 years of age. It is also one of the few types that is not associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

The last subcategory is lymphocyte depleted. It is the rarest form of Hodgkin's lymphoma. It typically affects older males. Unfortunately it has the worst prognosis of the four types.

Original article

Finding a Cancer Cure Would Put the Cancer Care Industry Out of Business!

Legally, I can't tell you that monatomic gold cures cancer, even though scientific studies have shown that cancer patients taking monatomic gold have experienced improvement in their condition. If you want references, click on the link below. For now, I'll just relate my viewpoint based on what I've read and what I've experienced.

I've never had cancer, but my mom did. She died from the TREATMENT! Her father had cancer and died. My dad's mom had cancer and died. There's a lot of conjecture in the medical community as to the causes of cancer. Before the industrial revolution, cancer cases were rare. Many effective cancer treatment protocols were developed prior to 1950's, but these treatments were suppressed by the mainstream medical establishment at the behest of the pharmaceutical corporations. One natural cancer therapy that I can't legally tell you actually works is cottage cheese and flax oil. That's pretty simple, and totally non-toxic. Won't kill you like chemo-therapy might, like radiation probably will.

A mineral supplement derived from gold, called monatomic gold has been used by ancient cultures throughout earth's history as an aid in spiritual ascension. Modern scientific research has shown that subjects taking monatomic gold show an immediate increase in brain synchronization, leading to stress relief. Legally, I can't tell you that stress causes cancer. I also won't tell you that de-stressing will cure your cancer.

It's also been observed that monatomic gold repairs DNA. It's the DNA that tells the cells what to do, when and how to divide, whether to be healthy or unhealthy. Exposure to environmental toxins like petro-chemicals can damage the DNA, leading to cancer. Certain supplements have shown to aid in detoxification of these unnatural chemicals. Would you be surprised to discover that many pharmaceutical drugs are synthesized from petroleum? What connection do you think might exist between the petroleum industry and the pharmaceutical industry?

Before the prohibition era, Henry Ford produced automobiles designed to run on pure ethanol. John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil fame used his influence to push for the prohibition of the sale of alcohol, not to stop people from drinking, but to shut down the fuel competition from Ford's ethanol production. Ford had filling stations that were ethanol-dedicated, garnering some 25% of the fuel sales in America. Then came prohibition. Ethanol is a clean-burning fuel, producing no toxic emissions. Petroleum based fuels and petroleum refinement to make gasoline and diesel fuel produces cancer causing toxic by-products. Some of these waste by-products are used in the manufacture of cancer drugs and other pharmaceutical drugs. Read the lists of side-effects! Jeesh!

It's time we grow up and start thinking for ourselves. Television gets most of it's ad revenue from drug ads! Television also uses subliminal messages to program the subconscious mind to action. It's also been discovered that brain-waves of television watchers are identical to brain-waves of subjects under hypnotic trance!

My experience taking monatomic gold is my mind is sharper. My dreams are more vivid, and I experience a greater since of synchronicity of experience. You know those "Aha!" moments? So, how might having access to a greater mental capacity effect your ability to handle health challenges? Do you think you might be able to better sort it out for yourself, rather than just blindly following the advice of some oncologist who has yacht payments to make?

If you'd like more data on high-quality monatomic minerals that I cannot legally tell you have helped many people with cancer, click on the link below. To life!

Samuel Boydston is an explorer in human consciousness. He is intensely engaged in the pursuit of greater ability in the fields of music, the arts and education. More articles at: [http://monotomic-monatomicgoldpowder.com/monatomic-gold-powder-monotomic-and-modern-alchemy/].

Original article

The Moment of Truth

Chapter One

The Moment of Truth

It is a long story, but it began after Hughie's Summer Day Camp, Chandler Newberger's Sports Camp, was finished July 11th. Hughie had a big day, as the camp always plans a day trip to Six Flags Great America, an amusement park, and the campers leave at 8:45am and do not return until 4:30pm. That is a much longer day than Hughie is used to, but the trip was a great success. I picked Hughie up and took him immediately to Noah's 7th birthday party at Wilmette Bowling Lanes, which didn't finish until 7pm. So, Hughie's week ended on a high note, and the following week was filled with lots of reading, relaxation, and no stress. It was great for everybody not to have to race here and there, dropping off and picking up on the hour! What started merely as a venture to both save some money, and to decompress from over-scheduling, in doing only one term of summer camp, turned out to be a Life Saver...

Hughie is an avid cyclist, and every morning before his sports camp he would ride at least a ½ hour on his own around the block. Suddenly, however, this week, when he had no more physical activity planned through camp, he was not interested in riding his bike. He retreated mostly to his room to read; this is not untypical behavior for him really, as he loves reading, and reads very well. One day, however, later in the week, (around July 16th) I found him reading on his beanbag chair, and when I came by later, he had fallen asleep. I thought it was a little strange, but nothing more at that time.

The next week, Monday, July 21st, I noticed that Hughie's demeanor was becoming quiet, and reserved, which is totally out of character. He is normally a little obnoxious, goofy, charming, and always eager to share his recent revelations at the kitchen table while eating. I also noticed that Hughie's eyelid on his left eye was drooping. I thought maybe he had been bitten by a spider like had happened to Lizzie during her nap. By the end of that week, I noticed that Hughie's appetite had diminished. He was eating very little, and was sleepy. He didn't fight going to bed at all. Saturday, Lizzie had the flu, so when Hughie had a temperature on Sunday, July 27th, I assumed that he had the same virus. He ate nothing at dinner, but only drank his milk, and his soup. I tried to get him to take one bite of some hummus on pita bread, and he gagged. I thought he was throwing up at the time.

His temperature of 102F continued on Monday. Tuesday, we decided to go to the Lincoln Park Zoo because it was a beautiful day, and we had nothing planned. On our way, we made a quick stop to order Liquor for Victoria's Wedding Shower that was planned to be a Croquet/Badminton Garden Party at our house on Sunday, August 3rd. After parking the car at Diversey Harbor to go to the zoo, Hughie could hardly walk, and was having a great deal of trouble breathing. He didn't really complain but I could see on his face that as we walked along the Lagoon, breathing was a lot of work for him. We stopped and took a break and I gave him some benedryl, thinking it might be allergies. But, as we continued, he didn't change, and I knew then Hughie was seriously ill. It really scared me, and I realized that even though Hughie was not complaining per se, that it was serious. Sometimes kids don't complain because they don't want to be sick, and have to go to the doctor. Then, I knew that it was my responsibility to play Doctor, and take charge, which is exactly what I did.

We rushed to our Pediatrician, from Diversey Harbour, that July 29th at 3:00pm, arriving at Howard and Asbury, in Evanston, at the Traisman/Benuck practice by 3:00pm. I had already alerted Edna, the Receptionist, that I was very concerned, and that I was sure that Hughie was seriously ill. Upon arrival, I discovered that neither of the Partners who regularly see our children was available. Instead, we saw the new Pediatrician who had just joined the practice one year earlier. He and I have never gotten along since he joined the practice over a year ago, because I always am made to feel that what I know intuitively about my kids is not valuable in assessing the problem, and ultimately making a diagnosis. I always take my kids to see the doctor when they are sick, and usually I have some idea what is wrong with them. I make it a habit to give the doctor as much information as I can about the history of their illness. This doctor immediately asked, "So why are you here, Hughie? You look great to me!" I suggested that because he was having trouble breathing, that he had a temperature for three consecutive days of 102F, and that he wasn't eating well, and was lethargic, that maybe he had an infection like Pneumonia. I then suggested that we get a Chest X-ray to confirm that there was no respiratory infection. He then listened to Hughie's heart beat, and breathing, and said:" Hughie's lower respiratory is excellent! It is not necessary to get a Chest X-ray." He gave Hughie a breathing treatment for allergies, and a prescription for Zyrtec, a common allergy medication for children and adults, and told us to come back in a week, before we left for Colorado, if Hughie's breathing wasn't improved. I left feeling very dejected and disappointed in his lack of attentiveness. I felt as if he totally disregarded my concerns.

The next morning, I followed my instincts. I called and talked to the Receptionist, Edna, and told her that I was very dissatisfied with the diagnosis of Hughie, and that I wanted to see another Doctor, either Dr. Benuck, our regular Physician, or his Partner, Dr. Traisman. I was told that Dr. "X" was the only Doctor available in the office Wednesday, but Dr. Traisman would be available to see me at 2:15pm Thursday, July 31st. I accepted that invitation, and took Hughie then. I had Alice with me, too. Dr. Traisman immediately noticed Hughie's eyelid with concern, and then examined him. I gave him all the same information that I had given Dr. "X". Immediately, he showed signs of concern. He stated " Hughie has no air passing in hisleft lung"...He attributed this to a mass growing in Hughie's chest above the left lung, which if it compressed the nerves which control your eye movement, could cause the drooping effect. He also noticed that the right eye pupil was dilated...Within 10 minutes, he was calling Children's Memorial Hospital (one of the best Pediatric hospitals in the nation) to schedule a Chest X-rays of many locations, including the neck area where he supposed the mass was located, and then down into the lung area, as well as CT Scans.

I was suddenly overcome with fear, anxiety, and struggling to stay strong. I called my sister from the car, and started crying. I dropped Alice at home with Anna, and raced downtown to the hospital to start the race to save Hughie's life! Annie met us at the hospital, and I called Milind on his cell phone. He was at the airport in some city and his flight was about to take off. I told him where I was, and what was going on. His flight landed a couple hours later, and he took a cab directly to the hospital. Before we knew it, we were talking to a Pediatric Oncologist in the Emergency room, where they Hughie on a respirator because his breathing was so inhibited. I told the nice lady that she was in the wrong room, and suggested that she leave, because our son did not have cancer. She smiled and said, "unfortunately, we think that he may, and right at this moment we have the radiologists reviewing all of his tests to get a better confirmation as to what kind of tumor he has...Later, after much denial on my part, Milind's part, and my parents part, we heard the bad news. Yes, it is a malignant growth that is quite large and it is compressing on his lymph nodes above his left lung, and the nerve endings. His left lung was collapsed, and the T Cell fluid from the tumor had taken up the area where the lung normally is located. The tumor had moved both his trachea and his heart over to the right side, so they were now obstructing his breathing out of his right lung. The amazing thing was that until Tuesday, the 29th, Hughie never complained. Now, I understood that he had gagged on the food because his trachea had made eating almost impossible, and his oxygenation level was impeded so much that it made him tired, and nauseous.

The truth left a numbing effect on all of us that was filled with pain, concern, and an uncertain future for all of us. My parents are strong, and Dad kept saying, "Don't worry sweetie, everything is going to be all right." I knew he was now seeing how strong Hughie was to endure the pains that he had quietly kept to himself. He sat in the ER bed, surrounded by all the family he has in Chicago, and while breathing into a respirator, he gleefully watched Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets. He had tuned us all out for what was really important! Thank God for the resiliency of children; as we were crumbling, Hughie was somehow enjoying himself...But I was panicing. What about Victoria's party! I had to call her, and let her know we would have to cancel. I called her and cried my eyes out as I told her what we were going through. She willingly took over the task of calling all of the guests and explaining what had happened in the most appropriate manner. I was relieved and disappointed, as she is a very dear friend, and we were looking forward to sharing her joy of getting married to wonderful Matthew. But, I had to focus on Hughie, and what is important: life.

Needless to say, once they had a room on the Oncology/Hematology floor, Hughie was immediately admitted to the hospital that evening (July 31st). By the grace of God, the Chief of Oncology, Dr. Elaine Morgan was "On Call" the night he was admitted, so he became her patient. She is a brilliant doctor, and I am thankful that her experience, aptitude, and sincere interest and caring attitude allowed me to relax and feel that we were in the best hands possible. Hughie was in the hospital for 6 nights, watched closely by doctors, nurses, day and night. They started administering Chemotherapy immediately on August 1st, and in our first meeting with Dr. Morgan, she warned us that each child responds to treatment differently, and that she could not promise us anything. His initial prgnosis, based solely on general probabilities and statistics, suggested that Hughie had a 70-80% chance of cure. When Dr. Morgan said this, my heart dropped into my lap. I immediately knew that what she was really saying was that there was a 30% chance that he would not be cured, and would die She reminded us that Hughie was gravely ill, and that we were lucky that we brought him into the hospital when we did. She did suggest that if Hughie responded to the treatment that they were starting on August 1st, then he should be in Full Remission by August 29th. I was amazed that she was so sure of the treatment plan; but, at the same time, Dr. Morgan wanted to make us understand that she could not promise that Hughie would respond to the Plan. Not all kids do. He was diagnosed with Stage 4 Lymphoblastic T Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Stage 4 means that it was very advanced, but was essentially limited to the lymph node where the tumor was located. There was some residual T Cell fluid that had dripped from the cavity where the lung usually is into the blood stream, but this was limited, and therefore not Leukemia.hat was important because the treatment of Leukemia is more intense, and can take longer to recover from.

Pediatric cancers differ from adult cancer today because although they grow so rapidly, that helps in the recovery process; they also recede more quickly and effectively because of the rapid cell growth in young children. Now, for some good news: Hughie has been in Remission fully since August 29th. Dr. Morgan suggested that her goal was to have Hughie in remission by that time, with full lung function returned, no tumor, and no t cells in his body; that wish came true!! And I thanked both Dr. Morgan, and her Assistant, Dr. Schneiderman, and with tears in my eyes said, "Thank you for saving my son's life!" Now, I finally saw the sun creeping out from behind the clouds. (Chapter 2: The treatment Plan, will address the specifics of what went on between August 1st, and August 29th).

Mrs. Blair Lele is a Wellness Advocate who helps people world-wide to improve their health by finding solutions to their problems. She has helps hundreds of people find natural remedies to issues relating to their personal care products that are not in harmony with their physiology. She has access to remedies that are cutting edge, pure, and safe, with no chemical ingredients. Contact her by email to share your challenges: blele@mac.com. "I believe that our bodies can be healthy if treated with love and respect." With questions pertaining to skincare, please view [http://www.skinsecretsdisclosed.com]. Otherwise, email Blair 24/7.

Original article

Medical Oncology For Children

Cancer therapy for children is most often called pediatric oncology. It is one of the most ruthless forms of cancer because it attacks young defenseless children. If you spend any time learning about cancer and pediatric oncology you'll undoubtedly discover that there are many stories of young lives taken much too soon to this horrible disease.

In their efforts to fight their cancer children must undergo painful medical oncology treatments.

Types of Cancer Treatment For Children

The main types of cancer treatment for children are chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery to remove the cancer.

Chemotherapy is a type of treatment that kills cancer cells but damages normal human cells. This type of treatment can cause severe side effects and long lasting health implications. The damage depends greatly on how long chemotherapy is performed and how long the child is exposed to this type of treatment.

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that can make tumors smaller by using high energy rays. Radiation therapy can be used as a stand alone treatment or it can be used prior to or after surgery. It can also be harmful to normal cells, not just cancer cells so there is a risk of severe side effects.

Surgery can be one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment. Surgery can major or minor, depending on the size of the cancerous area and progression of the disease. One of the main considerations doctors have when performing this type of surgery is to try to take out as much of the cancer as possible without removing healthy tissue (or only removing very little healthy tissue).

Pediatric Cancer Centers

It is important to know when you are looking for a cancer center for children that you find one that is a member of the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Most of these types of facilities are non-profit organizations with the sole mission of helping kids fight cancer and other related diseases. Beyond fighting the sickness these types of facilities also help children cope with what they have.

Generally speaking, almost 71% of all people who initially find out they have cancer are treated in medical facilities accredited by the Commission on Cancer (CoC) by the American College of Surgeons so this is also important to look for when seeking treatment as you can be assured that these centers have the highest level of care available to your child.

Find out more about oncology in New Jersey at one of the many cancer treatment centers.  Many are also  housed in large facilities with general New Jersey Medical doctors that can also treat other kinds of illnesses.

Original article

What is Mantle Cell Lymphoma?

Mantle cell lymphoma is a subtype of B-cell or B-Lymphocyte lymphoma categorized under Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This type of lymphoma is due to a malignant transformation of the B-cells. These B-cells are part of the immune system and responsible for destroying microorganisms that invade the body. The disease got its name for the malignant B-cells are often found in the mantle zone of the lymph node. Under morphological studies, this would present as a non-aggressive type of lymphoma. However, mantle cell lymphoma is an aggressive type of B-cell lymphoma and the malignancy can spread quickly in the body.

Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare-type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Comprising about 7% of the patients belonging in this category, it is commonly found in age groups above 60 years old. This type of lymphoma is manifested by swollen, non-tender lymph nodes located in the throat, and can involve other nodes such as the ones located near the collar bone, the armpits, chests, and groin. The malignant cells can also metastasize in the spleen and liver, giving the sensation of a full, distended abdomen. Fatigue in this condition is due to anemia because of spleen and bone marrow involvement may also be observed, as well as unexplained fever and weight loss. Gastric symptoms such as nausea and vomiting can also be observed.

Treatment for mantle cell lymphoma is given depending on the current stage of malignancy and metastasis. Rituximab is used to help the immune system look for the malignant cells and destroy them, with the help of Interferon given as an immune system booster. R-CHOP in combination with Rituximab and a steroid is commonly given as a form of chemotherapy that aims in destroying the cancer cells. In Stage I and Stage II phase it is treated with a local radiation therapy with or without the aid of chemotherapeutic agents. To help the body recover, stem cell therapy such as bone marrow transplant is done as an aggressive form of treatment when the disease is at the later stage.

Research is still being conducted on ways to treat mantle cell lymphoma without suffering from too much side effects. The MCL Consortium is a group of physicians dedicated to battling this disease. Their website has mantle cell lymphoma resources for researchers and patients designed to help people understand this malignancy as well as group together patients and survivors to form a support group.

Need to learn more about Lymphoma? Be sure to check out Lymphoma Symptoms which contains in-depth information on Mantle Cell Lymphoma symptoms, causes, treatment and much more.

Original article

Umbilical Cord Blood Miracle - How Stem Cells From Umbilical Cord Blood Help in Curing Diseases

When a baby is born and the umbilical cord is cut, the blood left in the umbilical cord and placenta is usually discarded as medical waste. Not any more, as such blood has been found to be a very important and rich source of stem cells, and stem cells is mankind's latest hope in its battle against age-old fatal diseases.

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that eventually become the different types of blood cells. And as of today, about 70 medical disorders have been treated with such cells, specifically those taken from the umbilical cord. Such cells are very important in the treatment of, say, leukemia, or cancer of the blood. When patients undergo radiation therapy or chemotherapy, their stock stem cells are destroyed, leaving them in a very vulnerable, almost deadly condition. Traditionally, they receive transplant from a donor via bone marrow transplant or direct normal blood transfusion. These two sources of stem cells are fraught with pain and side-effects, and it is tricky to find a donor match.

On the other hand, stem cells from umbilical cord blood are very easy to collect and transplant, and it is not painful to administer. Moreover, it is not difficult to find a family member that can provide a match. And the greatest thing of all is that umbilical cord blood is almost always free of any contamination or infection.

Stem cell transplants can save lives of people with serious diseases, such as leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells) and other cancers, or those with serious blood disorders (aplastic anemia). Recently, it has been found that such cells taken from cord blood can also be used in the treatment of brain injury, cerebral palsy, type 1 diabetes, and heart disorders.

Because of its obvious importance, umbilical cord blood and its storage in an established cord blood bank upon the birth of a baby is becoming a hot issue. The good thing is that parents nowadays have this risk-free choice.

For more information regarding how storing cord blood can protect you and your child's future, check out umbilical cord blood.

Kayla Leeds is a veteran author who maintains a news website called Hot Daily Buzz ([http://hotdailybuzz.com]).

Original article

Writing Can Be a Source of Encouragement When Battling Cancer

My girlfriend seemed more concerned than I was. She thought wrongly that I didn't like doctors because I had studied natural medicine. To cut a longer story short I went to my local medical centre straight after work one evening and saw a general practitioner whom I'd met once before.

The practitioner was different to other doctors I had met in the past. He was gentle, soft spoken and spent more time with me and his patients than other doctors whom I had known. He also explained the problem to me and his other patients in a way that wasn't confronting or full of incomprehensible medical mumbo jumbo. In the long run I was glad that I developed a good relationship with this particular general practitioner.

When I told him my symptoms he said "we'd better check if there are any nasties there."

"Nasties?" I'd never heard that expression before and I assumed he was referring to parasites. That made sense! If I had somehow ingested some kind of parasite, it may have been sharing my food with me, or worse it may have been feeding on me from the inside. This would certainly cause weight loss.

The good doctor recommended I undergo some tests: Chest X-ray, ultra sound, blood tests. A bit extreme for parasites I thought. Anyway, I booked it at a local centre and underwent those tests. The following day I returned to work as usual.

A week later I returned to the doctor. He went over my blood test results and pointed out some the results that were over the normal range. He indicated there was a "nasty". Now I realised this no longer referred to parasites but to something else altogether. He also said my X-ray showed emphysema.

I was in some kind of a daze, and the first thing that came to my mind was "Well, I'll get to travel to the other side and discover what's there!" The "other side", life after death and reincarnation were all topics I had taken an interest in, and had become part of my graduate studies. I was referred to two specialists: One was a haematologist, the other an oncologist. Both these specialists concurred there I had some kind of "nasty" and that more investigations were necessary to determine exactly the kind of nasty it was. A day was set for my admission into hospital.

At this stage I thought I'd take a break from my job. I remember it had been more difficult to summon the energy to get into my day's work. On a few mornings I had sat in a nearby park after my bus and train ride to absorb some sunlight in the hope of absorbing some energy. The weather had been excellent. It was bright and sunny, and early enough in the day for it to not be too hot.

When I took a break from work I found that staying home offered little relief except that I didn't have to put up with public transport, and I suppose was a good thing. And then I was living with that underlying feeling of malaise that expressed itself as a confusion between extreme hunger and lack of appetite, and the feeling of weakness was there too.

Writing is a source of encouragement when battling cancer and I would like to write more about this particular experience.

Alfred Bellanti is a published author and webmaster of http://www.mindbody.biz/

Original article

Contaminated Tap Water Can Potentially Lead to Leukemia

While consuming eight glasses of water is still highly recommended, where you get that water from is crucial. Many are inclined to go to the faucet and poor themselves a glass of tap water. Unfortunately, tap water simply is not safe to drink. While there are countless toxins within tap water, many do not realize how many chemicals are in the water and what kind of damage it can potentially cause.

Water contamination is one of America's number one health problem because of the mere fact that 70% of our body is water. We need it co cleanse our system and flush out all of the toxins. By pouring more toxins and chemicals into your body with tap water, you are only doing more damage than good.

According to the New York Times, violations of the Clean Water Act and state anti-pollution statues have risen drastically across the nation in recent years. With these violations has come an increase in the levels of harmful chemicals that have been found in drinking water. Possible illnesses that have been sustained from drinking contaminated water include leukemia, lung cancer, brain cancer, birth defects and respiratory disorders.

Researchers have found that an estimated 10% of Americans have been exposed to water that has contained dangerous chemicals. The scary part is experts are concerned that the level of harmful toxins in public drinking water is only rising. Researchers found an average of 200 industrial chemicals and pollutants in umbilical cord blood samples with 10 babies that were born in 2004.

While there are several toxins that are dangerous that can be linked to tap water, one of the more dangerous ones to look out for is Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. This is a gasoline additive that gas companies have been using since the 1980s. This has been a known water contaminant in over 1,800 communities in the U.S. and at least 29 states. The EPA released a statement in 2005 linking this to leukemia and lymphoma.

Because of rapid industrialization in the United States over the last century, numerous chemicals and by-products have been released into the environment. As a result, this has contaminated a large amount of drinking water. The EPA is doing what it can to regulate known potential contaminants, but there is still a large amount of pollution that goes on. While leukemia is a scary result that can come from contaminated drinking water, this is just one of the many dangerous effects that can occur. It is vital you stick to clean, fresh water as it can potentially save your life.

Ed Szczepaniak cancer answers (www.loganswers.com [http://www.loganswers.com]).

Original article

What is Follicular Lymphoma?

There are a lot of classifications for lymphoma depending on the morphological characteristics found during biopsy. The major classifications are Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but they are still subdivided according to their grade. Follicular lymphoma is a subcategory of B-Cell lymphoma that is classified under Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Follicular lymphoma is an indolent type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This means that this type of lymphoma spreads and affects the body in a slower rate compared to other types of B-cell lymphoma. This classification is quite crucial. The slower a malignancy affects the body, the harder it is to detect. The disease got its name for it manifests itself as malignant follicles in affected body parts under morphological studies.

Follicular lymphoma rarely manifests itself in the early stages like other forms of B-Cell lymphoma. By the time the signs and symptoms warrant a visit to the physician, the follicular lymphoma is already at stage III or IV already. The signs and symptoms are:

- Swollen, rubbery, non-tender lymph nodes greater that 2cm in size. The lymph nodes can be located at the neck, by the clavicle bone,

- Distended abdomen due to enlarged liver and spleen

- Night sweats

- Unexplained fever

- Unexplained weight loss

- Difficulty in breathing

It is still unknown what causes this condition. However, the following risk factors have been attributed to the formation of the said condition:

- Compromise of the immune system - patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer, or prolonged intake of immune-suppressant drugs after transplant surgery has been attributed to formation of follicular lymphoma.

- Viral infections - HIV/AIDS, Epstein-Barr virus have been linked to follicular lymphoma.

Cure for the disease is divided into curative and palliative. However, the curative mode of treatment is applied only during the early stages of the disease and very few patients manifest Stage I and Stage II symptoms. Palliative treatment is done when the malignancy has spread through the entire body and cannot be corrected.

There are no known definite treatments that can totally cure follicular lymphoma. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often utilized to help prevent further spread of the malignancy. Sometimes, bone marrow transplant is utilized when the disease is in relapse to help the body recover and produce non-malignant cells. Even during the course of treatment, you must maintain regular check up with your physician to monitor your progress to see if the treatment is effective or needs changing.

Need to learn more about Lymphoma? Be sure to check out Lymphoma Symptoms which contains in-depth information on Follicular Lymphoma symptoms, causes, treatment and much more.

Original article

CNS Lymphoma Explained

Many individuals suffer from CNS (Central Nervous System) lymphoma. The central nervous system of the body consists of the brain as well as the spinal cord. When a tumor develops in the lymph cells of the body, it is identified as a lymphoma. The lymph cells are an intricate part of the immune system. These specialized cells work to combat infection that may develop within the body.

Most of the CNS lymphomas that are located in the brain and the spinal cord are considered to be malignant. Medical professionals refer to these abnormalities as "Neoplasm". Depending on their size and severity, they have the capability of interrupting the normal functions that a person is capable of such as walking, speaking, and even memory. Here, you will learn more about CNS lymphoma brain cancer tumors.

The Causes

When evaluating the causes of CNS lymphoma, many medical professionals are unable to identify one specific reason why the tumor has developed. There have been theories that this type of cancer comes as a direct result of a malfunctioning immune system. However, many individuals that develop these types of tumors are found to have a fully functional immune system.

Doctors and other types of researchers have determined that when the white blood cells grow in an uncontrolled manner that is part of the system that is referred to as "Lymphatic" that lymphoma develops. The over abundance of the cells eventually spills over into the central nervous system. While often referred to as a tumor, CNS lymphoma is not the same as a traditional tumor - it is simply a large amount of abnormal cells.

Symptoms of CNS Lymphoma

Just like other brain cancer tumors, CNS lymphomas results in many symptoms in those that experience the condition. Many doctors will evaluate the symptoms that a patient has in order to determine if a neurological examination is required. The following symptoms highlight the most common experienced by those that suffer from this particular form of brain cancer:

• Most individuals will experience a drastic change in personality. This is often a direct result of the pressure of the cells on the regions of the brain and the spinal cord.
• Most patients complain of a headache that is moderate to severe. This headache may occur on any region of the head. Many medical professionals use the area where the headache is occurring to determine the location of the CNS lymphoma.
• Patients that suffer from CNS lymphoma often experience moderate to severe nausea. This is often accompanied by bouts of vomiting that may prove to be quite severe.
• Many individuals find that they have a mild to severe case of weakness in the body.
• Numbness and other types of sensations such as tingling may be experienced in the body. This is most common in the face area.
• Many experience sensory complications such as complications when it comes to the ability to see and the ability to hear.

CNS lymphoma is a potentially dangerous brain cancer condition. If you have been diagnosed with this condition, you should work with a medical professional in order to receive treatment so that the symptoms that you experience are drastically reduced.


Author: Anne Ahira, CEO of Asian Brain Company

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How to Cure Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma by Epoch Chemotherapy?

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment by Epoch Chemotherapy

Epoch Chemotherapy is used as a treatment to cure many types of Cancer. One such treatment is the Non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in which the Epoch chemotherapy regimens like etoposide, vincristine, and doxorubicin are injected in the patients along with the drugs like intravenous (IV) bolus cyclophosphamide and oral prednisone for four days.

When the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) treatment was carried on 74 patients their immune system did not respond to the same injected drugs (regimens). But surprisingly the immune system of the patients with the fatal NHL responded nicely to the this treatment.

After this treatment medical tests were done and the test results were found. Results showed that the patients who were in the fourth stage of Lymphoma comprised of 77% of the patients who had responded to the NHL treatment and all the drugs in Epoch regimen were previously administered in 71% of the patients. Also it was found that 92% of the patients were injected with at least four of the drugs of the Epoch regimen. Our of 21 patients who did not respond to the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma treatment,15 responded and only one among them was able to achieve a complete diminution.

Patients with deteriorating CD-20 positive large B-Cells with NHL cells were treated with 375 mg rituximab drug on first day. The Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma treatment was then given to the patients from 2-4 days with the drugs being injected with different proportions into the patient's body. Only Cyclophosphamide with 750 mg was given on the day fifth and 60 mg Prednisone was given orally to the patient on the days 1-14 as a part of the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma treatment. After treating fifty patients between the ages of 23-72 years having with rituximab drug it was found that the primary large B-Cell lymphoma was spread out in 25 patients and large B-Cell lymphoma was converted to other form in 18 of them. Thus the treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with the help of Epoch Chemotherapy with rituximab drug proved to be fruitful.

Side Effects of the Epoch Chemotherapy Treatment

We all know that the Epoch Chemotherapy is a treatment which is used when there are complicated cancerous tumors. This treatment is given to the patients by mixing various toxic drugs in proper proportion due to which many harmful side effects are seen. So this treatment should only be given to the patients after studying their family history and then finding that whether those persons are allergenic to the toxic drugs or not.

Sometimes it is found that the patient suffers from nausea, hair loss, depression and appetite loss which are the side effects caused by the toxic drugs that are used during the this treatment. Even some patients become resistant to the drugs which are injected during the epoch chemotherapy treatment while treating the NHL which is a dreadful form of cancer.

In one such study done after the treatment of Non- Hodgkin lymphoma it was seen that the toxicity of the drugs had caused large scale neutropenia and gastrointestinal disorders in the patients.

Friends, we have now understood the importance of the Epoch Chemotherapy in treating cancer patients. Every coin has two sides. So has Epoch Chemotherapy. So do consult doctor before going for any kind of Chemotherapy because self-medication and self-analysis about once health is always dangerous. Always remember that Health is Wealth.

Wish all of you Nice in Health.

For more detail visit Epoch Chemotherapy

Original article

Lympho What?

How to minimise this troublesome complication

Lymphoedema is hard to pronounce and harder to spell. But its meaning is simple enough - and it is a very real problem for some people with cancer. Oedema simply means swelling, and lymphoedema is a swelling caused by a failure of lymph fluid drainage. Some people develop this sort of swelling because of infections in the skin and tissues, or because of an inherited problem with the lymphatic system itself. But in the UK the main cause is cancer or its treatment.

The lymphatic system is made up of tubes called lymph vessels and glands called lymph nodes. They provide a one-way drainage system through which fluid is taken away from the tissues and passed back into the bloodstream. Lymph is the name of this colourless fluid, which carries proteins, microbes and unwanted particles that are filtered through the lymph nodes on the way to the bloodstream.Groups of lymph nodes are found in the neck, armpits and groin.

Any tumour or treatment in an area of nodes can obstruct lymph flow. For example, breast cancer may lead to lymphoedema of the arm on the same side, while an excision of lymph nodes in the groin because of skin cancer can result in lymphoedema of the leg. The protein-rich swelling that develops in lymphoedema can make the skin dry and thickened and the arm or leg feel heavy and uncomfortable.

Although lymphoedema cannot be cured, much can be done to reduce and control the problems it causes. And specialist clinics now exist in many areas to help patients to manage the condition themselves. For those at risk of developing lymphoedema because of the nature of their cancer or its treatment, there are some precautions you can take to prevent it or minimise its effects:

* Avoid puncturing or grazing the skin on the same side as your treatment. Insect bites, gardening injuries and even nail biting can damage the skin and allow infection in;* If possible, don't offer the affected limb for injections, blood samples or blood pressure checks;
* Avoid keeping the limb in one position, such as carrying a bag or cramped in the back of a car;
* Take gentle, regular exercise, but avoid excessive or strenuous exertion.

The first signs of lymphoedema may be a slight and soft swelling over part of the body - usually an arm or leg. The swelling may be intermittent and accompanied by sensations of discomfort, tightness or pins and needles. If you suspect lymphoedema seek early medical advice.

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Original article

People Who Died of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer typically caused by asbestos exposure. Asbestos becomes trapped in the mesothelium, which is the lining of such vital internal organs as the lung, stomach, and heart. It can become cancerous over time, when it is known as mesothelioma. Numerous celebrities and other notable people have died from this disease.

Steve McQueen, a famous American actor principally from the 1960s and 1970s was diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma in December 1979. The peritoneum is the lining of the stomach. His mesothelioma was at such an advanced stage that U.S. doctors declined to offer McQueen surgery or chemotherapy due to the risk involved. As a result, Mr. McQueen sought treatment in Mexico.

Despite the risks involved in the procedure, McQueen underwent surgery in Juarez, Mexico to remove a large tumor in his abdomen. McQueen died of a heart attack the day following the surgery on November 7, 1980. McQueen attributed his asbestos exposure to the removing of asbestos lagging from pipes aboard a ship while in the Marines.

In 2006, film and television actor Paul Gleason died of pleural mesothelioma, which affects the lining of the lungs. Gleason played a supporting role in several blockbuster movies from the 1980s including Trading Places, The Breakfast Club, and Die Hard. Gleason believed he got mesothelioma from asbestos exposure while working on building sites when he was young.

More recently, Merlin Olsen, a Professional Football Hall of Fame defensive lineman, actor, and television football commentator died of pleural mesothelioma on March 11, 2010. Olsen was diagnosed in 2009 in the later stages of the disease. He underwent three courses of chemotherapy before his passing.

Olsen filed a lawsuit in December 2009 against NBC Studios, NBC Universal, and 20th Century Fox claiming they exposed him to asbestos, which caused his mesothelioma. Olsen also named Sherwin Williams and Lennox Industries in the suit, as he had worked at a job involving drywall when he was young.

There are dozens of other notable people who have lost their lives due to malignant mesothelioma. Each of the thousands of people who have lost their lives due to mesothelioma is tragic. Learn about the stages of mesothelioma and more at http://www.stagesofmesothelioma.org/.

Original article

What Are the Main Hodgkin's Lymphoma Symptoms?

Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of lymphoma characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. These cells are seen in lymphocytes, particularly the T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes which are types of WBC's. Lymphocytes are part of your body's immune system, so it would be natural to have problems in fighting infections when you have lymphoma.

When a person has Hodgkin's lymphoma, one major sign is having an enlarged, non-tender, rubbery lymph node located at the neck, armpit, chest, or groin. However, some note presence of pain when alcohol is consumed. Hodgkin's lymphoma symptoms can also include difficulty of breathing, chest pain, or persistent cough due to a lymph node that is pressing on the air passages or lungs.

Other Hodgkin's lymphoma symptoms are unexplained weight loss, unexplained fever, and night sweats. Fatigue can result due to anemia brought about by a weakened production and storage of RBC in the bone marrow and spleen respectively. Three Hodgkin's lymphoma symptoms are called "B symptoms" which are weight loss, persistent fever, and night sweats. The presence of these symptoms is used when staging the disease and to determine just how aggressive the treatment would be.

Hodgkin's lymphoma symptoms can happen in any stages of the disease. However, most types of Hodgkin's lymphoma manifest Hodgkin's lymphoma symptoms when the disease is already at Stage III and Stage IV. This is why it is important to undergo biopsy and other tests to confirm the presence of lymphoma so proper treatment can be given to help fight the disease. A swollen lymph node may indicate just a simple infection, but if it lasts for more than two weeks without any sign of decreasing in size, an appointment with a doctor is a must.

Treatment can range from radiotherapy, chemotherapy, to bone marrow transplant. Never miss a treatment regimen and always maintain your regular check up so you and your doctor will know if the treatment is effective or needs modification. High chance of survival is noted in treating Hodgkin's lymphoma no matter what stage it was diagnosed, so never lose hope and join a support group to help you cope with the disease.

Need to learn more about Lymphoma? Be sure to check out Lymphoma Symptoms which contains in-depth information on Hodgkin's Lymphoma Symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, causes and much more.

Original article

Facing Two Very Scary Words - Leukemia Lymphoma

Leukemia, Lymphoma: these are two of the scariest words anyone could ever hear in a doctor's office. It doesn't matter if it is you, personally, mother, father, child, spouse, friend; the fear is just as bad if it is about someone that means something to you. First of all, you will want to know exactly what type of cancer it is. Leukemia and lymphoma are blood cancers. Since you have the diagnosis there are things that need to be taken care of immediately.

First of all, get a second opinion in an entirely different practice. You want to be completely sure before you start thinking about treatments. The next thing you should do is find a support group. There are programs at all hospitals that have cancer centers. Leukemia and lymphoma (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin and myeloma) sufferers need professionals who are schooled in these types of cancer. These diseases affect everyone in the family of the person diagnosed. There are family support groups as well as peer groups.

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. These are the part of the blood that fights infection. Leukemia is uncontrolled multiplication or growth of the white blood cells. There are several types of leukemia and, luckily, it is very treatable in most situations. Acute leukemia starts quickly and grows fast whereas chronic leukemia happens over a long period of time.

Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph glands and cells and includes overgrowth of lymphocytes.

Cause for either leukemia or lymphoma is not known. These are two of the three types of blood cancer; the other is multiple myeloma.

These types of cancer are difficult to diagnose early because their symptoms are non specific. Some of the symptoms are: easy bruising, night sweats, swollen lymph nodes (without pain), and fever without infection, unexplained bleeding, weight loss, bone and joint pain. These symptoms depend on the type of blood cancer involved. In multiple myeloma, there is often bone and joint pain as a first symptom because of destruction of the bone cells. Leukemia is suspected with chronic anemia, night sweats, recurring infections. When lymphoma is suspected it often depends on the size and location of the swollen lymph glands.

10% of all new cancers are from these three blood cancers. For children, leukemia is the most common type of cancer. People with leukemia are at risk for infections. There is treatment though chemotherapy and radiation, as well as bone marrow transplant in some cases.

What are the risk factors for development of leukemia or lymphoma? High exposure to radiation either through tests or during a person's job increases the likely hood of getting leukemia. Smoking increases the chances of getting leukemia. Certain illnesses like Down syndrome increase the chances. A person with a family history of leukemia has an increased chance of having it later in life.

Leukemia patients do not always have treatment. If the illness is dormant, cancer treatment may be put off until it surfaces. The physicians will treat the other symptoms of the illness while waiting. Some leukemia patients have chemotherapy; some are treated with radiation. There is also a target method of treatment that allows the illness to be blocked. This treatment is sometimes difficult for the patient to handle.

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Original article